Intervju med Roger Spottiswoode

 
Normalt sett när jag bestämt mig för en temavecka så har jag först gjort klart med en person som ska intervjuas till den, vare sig det är temaveckans huvudperson (som i fallen med Sam Firstenberg och Luigi Cozzi) eller någon annan som på något sätt är kopplad till temaveckan (Andrew Leavold, Robert Reneau, Josiah Howard). Den här gången blev det inte så utan jag bestämde mig direkt för att under årets Black History Month hedra Sidney Poitier med sin egen temavecka.
 
Jag stod därför inför ett dilemma: Vem skulle jag intervjua? Karln själv, då 90 år fyllda, kunde jag tyvärr räkna bort. Jag funderade och funderade medan tiden började rinna ut. Jag kom till slut på en som hade varit perfekt att intervjua och gjorde vad jänkarna kallar för en hail mary och skickade ett brev på ren chansning, bära eller brista. Ett knappt dygn senare fick jag ett snällt svar tillbaka där min begäran om en intervju entusiastiskt beviljades.
 
Mannen jag kontaktade var Roger Spottiswoode, som regisserade Poitier i filmen Shoot to Kill. Andra filmer han regisserat är bland annat Turner & Hooch med Tom Hanks, Air America med Mel Gibson och Robert Downey Jr., Stopp! Annars Skjuter Morsan Skarpt med Sylvester Stallone, 6th Day med Arnold Schwarzenegger och inte minst Bondfilmen Tomorrow Never Dies med Pierce Brosnan. Det är inte varje dag man intervjuar en regissör vars meritlista gett mig otaliga timmars underhållning från att jag var sex år gammal (första gången jag såg Stopp! Annars Skjuter Morsan Skarpt) fram tills nu.
 
Eftersom det är till Sidney Poitiers temavecka jag intervjuat honom är det filmen Shoot to Kill samt hur det var att jobba med honom som fokus lagts på den här gången. Men vem vet, kanske kommer det en Temavecka Roger Spottiswoode någon gång i framtiden, med en mer karriäromfattande intervju? Den som lever får se. Nu till intervjun!
 
 
How did you get the job of directing Shoot to Kill?
 
I think it must have been through the kind suggestion of Dan Petrie to Jeffrey Katzenberg that got my name onto the list of directors. I really liked the script, although I think I would have worked with Sidney whatever the script had been, he was a childhood hero. Growing up in England, I was in a home where mainly European films were seen, except for some special exceptions. Cassavetes, and a few other film makers, and anything Sidney or Paul Newman was in.
 
 
I'm sure most directors would love to get the chance to work with Sidney Poitier. That said, despite being an established director at that point in your career, was it intimidating to direct someone of his stature?
 
I’m sure I must have been a little intimidated, but meeting him in person one quickly discovers he is the most engaging and fascinating person, just as one had imagined and I quickly forgot to be intimidated.
 
 
One thing I find very interesting about Shoot to Kill is that it marked his return in front of the camera after an 11 year absence. Do you know what it was about the project that made him return to acting after being away so long?
 
I’ll tell you a rather long story that answers this question, but I think you will probably need to trim it down. We filmed in Canada, in the foothills of the rockies. Wonderful locations, very steep, dramatic country. About halfway through the schedule we came to a scene that had taken an immense amount of preparation. Sidney’s character was following Tom Berenger’s mountain man up a steep, in fact it was vertical ’chimney’. This was a slight indentation in a vertical rockface, which was possible but difficult to climb 200 feet below where they climbed was a glacier. Access to this rockface was only by helicopter and we had to build landing platforms for the choppers which ferried the crew and the gear necessary to put the actors safely on the rockface.
 
This was before the advent of CGI. When the filming day arrived, the cameraman and I went down on ropes to about fifty feet below the top, and we set the camera position and made sure all the attachments and wire arrangements that would secure Sidney regardless of whether he held on or not and we checked everything was prepared and safe. As we were doing this, one of the helicopters flew in and the 1st AD radio’d down to us that ”Sidney had arrived’ and was ready for camera. I replied, ”Great wire him up and send him down.” That meant he would be put into a safety harness hidden inside his clothing, a safety wire was attached and he would climb down the ladder we had built into the rockface, hidden from the camera.
 
The camera operator and I were both hanging from wires, and we waited for Sidney to appear coming down the rock face towards us. And we waited some more. 5 minutes went by, then ten. I radio'd up, ”What’s happening?” ”I think you’d better come up” was the reply. This was something of a performance of course, it meant getting off the wire, onto the ladder, then re-wiring again for the climb up. Anyway, five minutes later I climbed over the edge and saw Sidney sitting on a large flat rock, not far from the helicopter and some way back from the precipitous edge. He was sitting quietly, alone. So I went over and sat down beside him. We both stared at the mountains for a while. Eventually, he spoke up, in his usual calm, quiet voice. He said,
 
- ”You know when Jeffrey sent me this script, I really liked it a lot. A very good story set in a beautiful place. But I also knew that it would be impossible to actually film it in the mountains, it was all too difficult to do in the real mountains, in the actual Rockies. so the big vistas would be done by a 2nd unit, and we would be shooting in Los Angeles, right at the studio, on sets. Just down the road from my home. Because no one in their right mind would come out here with a film crew... No one! And that thing there... (He pointed over his shoulder to the helicopter) That thing which I had never been in before today, and will never go in again after I get off this mountain... would be no part of my Life. So I’m not going down the rockface, I’m not even going to go over and stand on the edge... We’re going to shoot this on the stage like regular people."
 
And that’s what we did, just those few shots of Sidney on the rockface. Everything we done in those mountains. So Anders, there you have it. That’s the story Sidney told me, and I tend to believe what he says. He took the film because it meant shooting close to home and he liked the script.
 
 
Being a director himself, did you feel he was more hands-on in the making of the movie compared to other actors who doesn't have that experience being behind the camera provides? Did his experience as a director make it more difficult or easier for you to give him directions?
 
Being a director himself makes Sidney a particularly thoughtful and helpful person on the set. For the director, he knows exactly what you are dealing with and how to make your life as easy and pleasant as possible. Sidney is wonderfully prepared, gracious and thoughtful to his fellow actors. He does everything he can to make life easier for the director.
 
 
I think the chemistry between the two leading men, Sidney and Tom Berenger was great in the movie, they worked really great off each other. Did they seem get along well when the cameras weren't rolling?
 
Yes they got on fine and I think their differences helped the story. Tom is rather from the ’in the moment’ school of acting, while Sidney is very well prepared and very good at adapting his performance to work for the camera. I think the only difficulty Sidney had was when his Big City character had to seem out of place in the wilderness of the rockies. Sidney has an extraordinary grace and ease however difficult the terrain (except when helicopers are involved) so trying to look clumsy required extra attention.
 
 
Sidney got to play the fish-out-of-water for most of its running time. Granted, he was no stranger to comedy, but were you surprised just how well he pulled off the comedy bits where he acted like a buffoon for many of the scenes? I mean few other actors possess gravitas the way Sidney does.
 
He was delightful in this respect, particularly when it came to working with moose and the bear. a full grown grizzly. We had the bear specially trained for the scene and the Italian trainer and bear had some six weeks of preparation. After filming was complete that day, I asked the Italian trainer how he had prepared his bear to chase Sidney up the hill towards the cameras. ”How did I train him?” he replied… ”You can’t train a grizzly for that, there’s only one way he does itHe was very, very hungry. I not feed him for a couple of weeks before the shoot.
 
 
Berenger on the other hand played the tough, no-nonsense character with no time for buffoonery. He often plays these very tough guys, does he just happen to play them well or do they reflect parts of his actual personality?
 
I think those characters appeal to him.
 
 
Then there's the character of Sarah, who is kidnapped by the killer and played by Kirstie Alley. What was she like to work with?
 
Kirstie was very good company, she was always fun on the set, she loved the mountains, her husband was along, she didn’t have a whole lot to do, she was in great spirits.
 
 
The movie does a good job keeping the audience guessing who the killer is. Was it a deliberate choice to have known bad guy actors such as Clancy Brown and Andrew Robinson a part of the cast, while leaving open the possibility it could be one of the harmless looking guys?
 
Absolutely. And of course Clancy Brown was convincingly innocent, while Richard Masur, Andie and Kevin did their best to suggest they might be the killer.
 
 
It looks to have been a pretty hard movie to direct, with so much of it being shot on location in the wilderness in your neck of the woods, Canada. Would you say it was?
 
Do difficult locations make a film harder... not so much, I think. It may be a struggle to find remote locations and to get the crew and cast to them, but when it comes to the actual filming, there are huge benefits, everything works better. The cast understands the story better, they see how their characters would be affected by their surroundings... everything makes for a deeper good sense. Adversity also encourages collaboration. Many of our locations had no road access at all. Everything had to be hand carried across rivers, hills or Mountains. We had a rule that no one could get on or off those locations without carrying equipment. It was amazing how few were the complaints.
 
 
The actors sure seemed to have fun playing their parts. Was it a happy shoot?
 
Yes, a very happy shoot. Sidney of course is a charming and fascinating person, crew and cast were in love with him. In spite of expecting a studio film, he quickly adapted and loved the Mountains... so long as helicopters and vertical cliffs were not involved. Or bears... For very good reasons he had great respect for large grizzleys. When we prepared the scene where he and Tom almost literally bump into the grizzly, I remember explaining to Sidney how the scene would work, which direction he should run - up hill – and that it was important for him to check behind him as he ran up through the tall grass towards the four cameras in the distance. And Sidney asked me a question (with a bit of a smile because he was asking a Tom kind of question about motivation…)
 
- ”Why exactly am I looking back, Roger? What’s the motivation?
- ”Two motivations, Sidney. The first is that being an FBI guy out in the mountains the first time, you’re not sure how fast grizzlies can run up hill... so you need to look back and check how the grizzly is doing. And the Second motivation is for Sidney Poitier, the person, Sidney an actor in the film, trying to stay ahead of a grizzly. You Sidney, and as a matter of fact, me the director we also don’t know how fast this grizzly can go up hill. And that’s because we don’t know how fast it will go at all. We haven’t seen it run. Apparently it doesn't much like running. It’s kind of lazy. The trainer says he thinks the hill will slow him down, ’Quite a bit’, whatever that means. But personally, as the director, I’d sure be a lot happier if while you’re running you check back over your shoulder to see whether the trainer’s right about the bear not being great on an uphill slope. And by the way, we’ve had a team of local workers going over this ground and getting rid of all the rocks and stones that might trip you up, and they tell me it’s all clear.
 
And of course, I knew as I said that, the phrase itself, ”All Clear" had a bad reputation for inaccuracies. After all the usual delays, and checking that the bear had seen the little string that pretended to be an electric fence, we finally got all the cameras running. The bear stood around looking slightly irritable, and I called action, and Tom and Sidney started running. I must say, Sidney was always rather fleet of foot. I believe he plays a lot of tennis. And today he was quicker than ever, getting an early start ahead of Tom. But the bear, as it was released by the trainer took off like a rocket!!!! After 50 yards Sidney was still in the lead, but not by so much, and it was at this fateful moment that he looked back, as suggested by myself, the ’director’. And yes the bear was gaining on him, getting rather close... but just as he looked forward again and tried to speed up, his foot hit that one rock that had not been moved... and Sidney went flying. He hit the ground hard and in an instant the grizzly was standing over him all four paws surrounding his body.
 
Tom was there less than a second later and immediately sharted shouting, yelling, waving the gun he was holding, distracting the bear from the meal at his feet. The crew was rushing over, also yelling and shouting, the bear was momentarily distracted and then the trainer arrived with the biggest raw steak I’d ever seen which he offered to the bear. The bear gave Sidney a last look, shrugged at us, swiped the steak away from the trainer and ambled off with his meal. We helped Sidney to his feet. I apologised profusely and wondered if he would ever forgive me. Sidney was very understanding but a little shaken up. I’m not so sure his wife Joanna ever did. Yes a happy shoot, and at times quite unusual.
 
 
Roughly how long did it take to shoot the movie and did you feel you had a large enough budget to make the movie as it was scripted?
 
When Disney decides to make a film, they do know how to do it well. Their production department was always very good and both the budget and schedule were fine. We did have to build the shear rockface that Sidney could not face climbing down. And as I suspected it was almost as tall as the real one because of the rear projection and lights. But it was on a stage and looked just as good as the real one.
 
 
Since it was Sidneys return to the big screen after such a long time, did the marketing department highlight that when promoting the movie?
 
I expect they did, I don’t really recall. We were all rather sideswiped by the sudden change of title that marketing insisted on. The script had been named, ’In the Halls of the Mountain King', and after working in those ’Halls’ for six months, the title seemed beautifully appropriate. While the new title which the publicity people favored was Shoot to Kill and it felt rather ugly, inappropriate and not the film we had made at all.
 
 
What were your thoughts on the movie after having seen it for the first time in its entirety and has your opinion changed on it over the years?
 
Like many of my films, after working intensely on them for a couple of years and seeing them endlessly during post production, I seldom see them again. I will take a look for the first time, after I send this off to you.
 
 
Do you remember what Sidney had to say about it, was he pleased?
 
I do think he’s pleased with it. We’ve spoken a number of times over the years, it was a memorable experience. And for all of us, beyond the stunning mountains and amazing world we lived in for those months, working with Sidney was the very best part of it.
 
 
What about the critics, how was it received upon its release?
 
I think they were OK but not glorious. It’s not their kind of film. And the new title proved damaging, it put a lot of people off the film.
 
 
Lastly, what can you tell us about Sidney Poitier, the man, and what is your favorite memory of working with him?
 
Near the end of the shoot we were filming in Vancouver. One day we had a scene with a character who appeared in only one scene, a scene that would take a day to film. When we got to the set to rehearse the scene, before lighting began, I introduced Michael (MacRae) to Sidney. As we started to read through the scene we quickly discovered that Michael had been sent the wrong draft of the script by mistake. It was a simple production error but it meant that Michael had learnt a four page scene which was completely different from the one we were shooting. ”I have to go learn this new one, before I can rehearse,” he said.
 
Sidney immediately suggested we should help Michael learn the lines by reading together. So we sat in a motorhome and started reading the new version of the scene. In one of these new lines, there was a reference to ’a meeting in Robson Square’, a well known square in Vancouver. Each time we would come to this particular line in the script, Michael would misread the line and say, ”We are going to meet in Robeson square.” He pronounced the name of the square as if it was the name of the famous American singer, Paul Robeson (with a long ’o’, not the short ’o’ in Robson.)
 
 
The first time Michael did this, Sidney very politely stopped him and coreccted him… ”Robson, not Robeson.” Michael thanked him for the correction and we finished the scene before starting again. The second time, and Michael instinctively made the wrong pronounciation again... He was used to the name of Paul Robson and its pronounciation, while this square in Vancouver and its pronounciation, was unknown to him. Sidney stopped him again, very politely. He gave Michael the correct reading and we finished the scene. We had a cup of coffee and then read the scene a third time.
 
Once more, Michael, poor fellow, made the same small but grave error. Very firmly this time, Sidney said ”Stop”. You cannot confuse the name of one of the truly Great Americans, with a square in Vancouver. You just must not! There was a little pause and then Sidney lit up with that great smile, ”Let me tell you a little about Paul Robeson... What a man!... ” And for the next hour or so, Sidney seemed to be once more the young man full of love and enthusiasm who month after month had started his days in a Deli with his pal Harry (Belafonte), and talked to this wonderful celebrated athlete, actor, singer, civil rights activist who had become their friend and mentor. And when the stories ended, Sidney stay quietly for a moment and then became again the older person we were working with. He looked at both of us and said, ”Lets try the scene again, shall we?” Michael pronounced Robson the right way and it was the most fascinating hour I spent on the film. I suspect Michael remembers it as well.
 
 
On the last Sunday during production, I went looking to find a small gift with which to thank Sidney for his kind and generous collaboration. I wandered through a number of second hand book stores, all of them empty on this rainy Vancouver day. The last one was also the largest. It seemed cavernous, and I was rather lost not even certain where to be looking. The owner saw my uncertainty and came over to chat, and I explained I was looking for a gift for someone, and eveentually it came out, in fact the owner guessed, who the gift was to be for. He looked at me quizzically, then said, ”D’you know I’ve been waiting for you for a long time. Come with me...” He led me over to a door with record labels on it and explained, ”We also sell old records, we have just the one room, but they’re all rather special.” We went in and he went straight to a shelf which was behind a locked glass partion. He unlocked the glass and took down an unopened box-set of 78s - by Paul Robeson: The Ballads.
 
A big thank you to Roger Spottiswoode for these invaluable stories about the making of Shoot to Kill and his memories of Sidney Poitier!
*Batteries Not Included - 6th Day - Andrew Leavold - Andrew Robinson - Arnold Schwarzenegger - Clancy Brown - Dan Petrie - Harry Belafonte - Jeffrey Katzenberg - Josiah Howard - Kirstie Alley - Luigi Cozzi - Mel Gibson - Michael MacRae - Paul Newman - Paul Robeson - Pierce Brosnan - Richard Masur - Robert Downey Jr. - Robert Reneau - Robson Square - Roger Spottiswoode - Sam Firstenberg - Shoot to Kill - Sidney Poitier - Stopp! Annars Skjuter Morsan Skarpt - Sylvester Stallone - Tom Berenger - Tom Hanks - Tomorrow Never Dies

Intervju med Luigi Cozzi

 
Kult och B-filmsfanatiker som jag är var frågan inte om utan snarare när en temavecka dedikerad till Luigi Cozzi skulle ske. Han står inte bara bakom flera kultastiska italienska produktioner, vilket konsumeras i mängder här hemma, han har ju dessutom gjort några av Cannon Films mest underhållande filmer - och det säger en jävla massa och ges många pluspoäng för hos mig. Att han gick med på den här intervjun som ni nu ska få ta del av gjorde mig så glad att jag kunde plockat upp en björn och slängt den ut i rymden. Ja, det är en referens till en scen från en film både skriven och regisserad av Cozzi. Som sagt, snacka om att vara självskriven en temavecka här på bloggen. Mycket nöje!
 
 
I know you could write a whole book about the subject, but in short, could you share with my readers about your passion for the science fiction and fantasy genres?
 
Being born in 1947, since I saw 20000 Leagues Under the Sea in 1955 I became an avid sci-fi fan, looking for movies and books. In 1963 I created Futuria Fantasia, the first Italian fanzine, while in 1964 I was hired as assistant editor to monthly sci-fi magazine Galassia. In 1965 I became the Italian correspondent for Forry Ackerman's Famous Monsters of Filmland and in 1968 I directed my first sci-fi movie, The Tunnel Under the World, from the same title story by American writer Frederik Pohl. Just after that I moved from North Italy (Milan) to Rome, where in early 1970 I met with director Dario Argento and we became close friends...
 
 
Could you tell us how your movie career got started in Italy?
 
I started learning about movie making in Milan, working as assistant for dubbing and editing, then I directed and produced all by myself The Tunnel Under the World. When I went to Rome and met Dario Argento, he invited me to co-write with him the script for his third thriller, 4 Flies on Grey Velvet, which was bought by Paramount Pictures, becoming a huge hit in 1971 and fully launching my movie career...
 
Having formed a professional and friendly relationship with the now legendary filmmaker Dario Argento so early on in your career, was he a big help to you regarding your growth as a filmmaker?
 
My partnership with Dario Argento was the key to my career: he also wanted me to be his assistant director and he made me direct a tv movie in 1973 which was a huge hit when broadcasted. He also introduced and guaranteed for me to the producers of my own 1974 movie The Killer Must Kill Again... Aside from this, Dario also did really teach me a world of very important things about movie making.
 
 
One thing I found interesting it that the interior of Nora and Giorgio's apartment is almost completely in yellow. Was that a reference to the genre in which it belongs, since giallo translated into English means yellow?

When I was shown the yellow apartment as a possible location for Giorgio in The Killer Must Kill Again, I loved it because I thought it was very ironic to have a yellow house in my own giallo movie. This is the reason why I used it: humour... well, there's actually a lot more of black humour in The Killer Must Kill Again. To be true, in all of my movies there's always a lot of tongue-in-cheek.
 
 
While Argento and giallo goes hand in hand, you yourself are an expert on the genre, having held a master class on it. Despite this, The Killer Must Kill Again was the only one you directed in the genre. Was it a conscious decision to move more towards your great love for sci-fi and fantasy in your filmmaking or were there other factors involved behind not making any more gialli?
 
Since I was a kid my dream has always been to become a science fiction/fantasy filmmaker, but it was very, very, very difficult to do this because in Italy just less that 5 or 7 movies of this genre had been made all through the years, sci-fi being considered by Italian producers and distributors as a not commercial all-American genre. Anyway after The Killer Must Kill Again I again tried to convince someone to let me do a science fiction movie, ending up doing a comedy movie instead for a producer who had promised me to let me direct later on a movie version of Fred Brown's novel The Mind Thing... which finally wasn't made.
 
Let's talk about Cozzilla, a very odd part in your filmography. Where did you get the idea from to not only bring Godzilla back to theaters in Italy, but to also colorize, add new music and footage to it?
 
In January 1977 I bought the first Godzilla from Toho, because I was running a smalll sci-fi theatrical releasing company here in Italy, handling theatrical re-release rights to such pictures as Invaders from Mars, The Thing, Son of Kong, The Cat People, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Things to Come, Kronos: Conqueror of the UniverseThe Creeping Unknown, Enemy from Space and many others. Then, when Dino De Laurentiis announced his remake of King Kong, I thought to re-release in theaters the original Godzilla, doing it in a kind of new way: colorizing  it and adding Sensurround effects plus magnetic 4-tracks stereophonic sound, in order to book it in big theaters. I also re-edited it, adding about fitfteen minutes of new stock footage and some additional music too. And in mid-summer 1977 my Godzilla was released theatrically by my small company in Italy, earning some decent bucks.
 
 
Could you tell us how you managed to give Cozzilla that special look through the colorization?
 
The idea of colorizing Godzilla came to me after I'd met a guy, Armando Valcauda, who had the same kind of technical machinery that Ray Harryhausen had and used for his stop motion movies: the Kras. I immediately thought that Valcauda could be the key man for my plan to shoot a sci-fi movie and so I decided to test him, paying him to shoot a sci-fi effects test reel. He did it (actually we worked together on it) and while working with his stop motion system I discovered that it was easy to add or change colours to every frame. This clicked in my mind the idea of using this stop motion system to give colours to the original black and white GodzillaWe made a test and afterwards I saw the result I decided to go along with it... and we did colorized via stop frame animation the whole Honda movie... which has been the FIRST colorized movie ever, many years before computer colorizing. Crazy idea but it worked. We took about two months to colorize the whole movie.
 
 
Toho are pretty known to be a hard company to deal with, how were they when dealing with your Cozzilla and did they have any objections to the changes you were making?
 
I informed Toho about my changing their Godzilla and adding colours to it. They fully authorized me to go ahead, with just one condition: after my seven years contract with them'd be expired, all the colorized negatives'd become their own property. And after seven years I delivered to them all these new negs.
 
How did the audience and critics react when it premiered in Italy? Was it a financial success?
 
Critics didn'r review my Godzilla, because they didn't care about re-releases. The audience reacted well: it stayed for two weeks in major theater in Rome and Milano, earning all expenses back plus some fair gain.
 
 
In 1978, you made what I'd call your most ambitious movie, Starcrash, which I've always viewed as a love letter to the sci-fi and fantasy genres. Was it a dream come true to finally make a movie with so many things you'd grown up appreciating, like model ships, stop-motion effects, robots and getting to add references to some of your heroes?
 
The Starcrash project was born in May 1977, just after Star Wars opened, and I started shooting it in mid September 1977, ending main shooting with actors just before Christmas 1977. Then we worked on the editing and doing the special effects till September 1978. In Italy it was released early in January 1979. Of course Starcrash was the fulfillment of my life-long dream of making an all sci-fi movie. Actually, Starcrash was more a science fantasy than actual sci-fi, because I decided for practical reasons (not enough time to prepare it, not enough money to do it properly) to do it more as a Ray Harryhausen-like movie than a George Lucas-oriented vehicle. Yes, Starcrash was done in this way because I knew we had to do most of  our special visual effects with the stop motion technique using the Kras stop motion camera-projector...and so I had written the movie in order to stick perfectly to this. Adding to the whole my full thirty years of deep love for sci-fi movies and books. (I was just thirty years old when I made Starcrash
 
 
Did Roger Corman have any part in the making of it besides his company New World Pictures being the distributor? I ask because in the US it's released under Shout! Factory's Roger Corman's Cult Classics collection, but I can't find any information about any direct involvement on his part.
 
Starcrash was born and made as an AIP (American International Pictures) movie and its CEO Sam Arkoff came personally to visit us during shooting here in Rome. I met him and he congratulated me over the dailies he had been shown. Then Starcrash was due to be released by AIP at Easter 1978, but lost that date because its special effects were still being completed. So its AIP US release date was moved to late August 1978 and the picture actually could have been delivered on time, but in the meanwhile seemingly Roger Corman had met the Starcrash producer making a bigger offer... so, don't ask me why and how because these things were happening in L. A. while I was working here in Rome, all of a sudden Starcrash had a new distributor, Corman's New World. But I never met Roger Corman or heard from him while working on Starcrash. I was only informed some months after the US release of the movie that about 8 minutes of my own version of Starcrash had been cut from the American prints, probably due to a Roger Corman decision. 
 
 
A very young David Hasselhoff has an important role in the movie. What was he like to work with?
 
I had selected David Hasselhoff watching VHS recordings of him acting in some tv soap operas. I thought he was perfect for the role of the Young Prince and so told the producer to hire him. When he came here and I knew him, I found he was a very intelligent and collaborative guy, working very easily with him. And he was a good actor too.
 
 
My favorite character by far is Elle, the robot. I love the fact that he has a thick Texan accent. Whose decision was it to make him speak like that?
 
The robot Elle ("L" being the initial of my name) was supposed by me from the very start to speak with a peculiar and funny accent. Not being able to speak fluent English, I had no idea of which kind of American accent this robot could have, but positively I wanted it to speak English in a funny way. According to this, the decision to give him a Texas accent was later taken during the dubbing in LA.
 
 
Two years later, you made another sci-fi with Contamination, often being labeled as an Alien rip-off, which I think is unfair. With the elements of Mars, mind control and the creature (which reminds me of the one in It Came From Outer Space), my mind turns more towards sci-fi movies from the 50's. So, what were your inspirations behind the idea of the movie Contamination?
 
Contamination was made because I promised to its producer to deliver an Alien-like imitation within a minimum budget. Because of this I was obliged to put in it alien eggs and bloody body explosions. But aside from these fixed points I could not avoid to use, I actually made a Fifties oriented sci-fi movie, with strong inspirations and the same kind of mood from these three classics: Them!, The H-Man and Enemy from Space.
 
 
You chose the Italian progressive rock band Goblin to make the score, the only time they've ever scored a movie you've directed. What made you choose them for this particular movie?
 
Music has always been a very important element for me in the movies... don't forget I was (and still am) a long-playing collector and a former journalist for a weekly pop/rock magazine. So in 1980 I choose Goblin's progressive rock because I though it could fit well with the action in the scenes of my Contamination, as it actually did. 
 
You then worked for Menahem Golan and Yoram Globus' Cannon Films on both Hercules movies and Sinbad of the Seven Seas with Lou Ferrigno. What's the story behind how you got to work for them?
 
When Starcrash was released in the US becoming a hit, Golan and Globus approached and signed me to do one more sci-fi movie for them. The project was titled Star Riders but after a while they decided not to do it (making Golan's sci-fi The Apple instead... and it was a total box office disaster). Still I had a contract with them and they were due to pay me for it, so they assigned me to work on Space Vampires... but after a while this project was shelved too. In the meanwhile they had opened Cannon in Italy too and were producing two Lou Ferrigno's vehicles, The Seven Magnificent Gladiators and Hercules.
 
But when, on the eve of starting shooting Hercules, Golan was finally given the script for it, he hated it. So they were in a tragic situation: Ferrigno was here in Rome ready to start, but they had no script at all. Immediately Golan thought of my standing contract with them and phoned me, offering me to direct Hercules if I were to be able to deliver to them a decent new script for it within the next ten days. I did... and they liked very much my own concept of Hercules as a Superman of the past, and so I became this science fantasy version of Hercules new director.
 
 
Ferrigno's voice is dubbed in all three movies. Obviously, Italian produced movies uses dubbing, but sometimes the actors lend their own voices in post production. Was there a specific reason why Lou Ferrigno didn't dub his own voice?
 
As I've already told talking about Starcrash, I can understand English but have difficulty to understand slangs, accents and so on. Therefore I've never dealt directly or personally with the English dubbing of my movies. With Hercules I was told since the beginning by Golan that Ferrigno, having been deaf as a child, couldn't speak clear, fluent American language and for this reason he was going to be dubbed. I simply accepted this, not being able to judge Lou's accent by myself. 
 
In Electric Boogaloo: The Wild, Untold Story of Cannon Films, you mention that the script for Hercules was originally very different and adult oriented and was changed due to Ferrigno wanting a more family-friendly movie. Do you think the movie suffered as a result, or did it get better with the different tone?
 
The first script of Hercules was simply changed because Golan hated it: he didn't let me read it but just told me it was totally old-fashioned with even some hard-core sex situations, while Golan absolutely wanted the Hercules movie to go for the children and the family audience. Therefore Golan told me to write a completely new script  from the scratch. Then I proposed him my own personal view of Hercules as a Superman of the past: he immediately liked it and told me to write the script accordingly... which I did. And when I delivered the script, Golan and Globus liked it so much that they even rose the budget for the movie, bringing it close to 2 billion Italian liras (about one million and a half dollars).
 
 
So, the making of The Adventures of Hercules II is a bit odd. Could you explain how the idea of the sequel came to be?
 
There was no sequel planned for Hercules. After that I just had been signed to write and direct Lou Ferrigno in Sinbad and we were going to start pre-production on it. But suddenly things changed: Golan and Globus came to Rome, saw Hercules completed and were very happy with it. At the same time they were shown the former Lou Ferrigno vehicle shot in Italy before I stepped in, titled The Magnificent Seven Gladiators, and they were literally shocked by it: they decided not to deliver it to their international distributors who had already paid for it because it was their lousiest movie ever. After ten other days, having thought about how to solve this unexpected trouble, they made me an offer... a kind of offer that actually I could not refuse: they had decided not to start immediately to work on Sinbad because they did want me and Lou Ferrigno to work on reshooting at least 40 minutes of new scenes to be inserted in The Magnificent Seven Gladiatorstrying to bring that mass of crap almost to decency.
 
This meant for me cutting out 40 minutes of the already completed Seven Gladiators and scripting 40 minutes of new scenes to be shooted and inserted into it. Which I did. When the script for these new Gladiators 40 minutes was sent to Golan along with a two-weeks new shooting schedule for approval, he okayed everything but added a question: if Luigi is able to direct 40 new minutes in two weeks, would he be able to shoot  80 minutes if we pay for a FOUR weeks new shooting schedule? Puzzled, I said I thought it was possible... and then Golan said: Then go with it! Write another 40 minutes brand new section of the script and forget about shooting retakes for Seven Gladiators. You'll shoot instead a totally new Hercules movie.
 
So I had to do this... and it was a very complicated script... because I could not write it simply for the start to the end as when I scripted Hercules 1, but I had to write new scenes to fit into other scenes which I had written as going to be a part of Seven Gladiators... well, a real mess and a very complicated work, having terrible trouble trying to give a coherent sense to the whole. A really jigsaw script... surely not the best way to write a good script. Besides that, the budget which had been made for 40 minutes of Gladiators re-takes was simply doubled, but it was absolutely not enough for a wholly full-lenght new Hercules movie... but Cannon didn't change it and therefore I was forced to do this very unusual kind of Hercules sequel spending much less than half of the budget I had for the first Hercules...
 
 
Do you know if Ferrigno got paid for the additional scenes he shot for the second movie?
 
Ferrigno shot Adventures of Hercules with a re-shooting low cost contract as he were doing retakes for The Magnificent Seven GladiatorsThen when the movies was actually finished, back in the US  he was informed that he actually had shot a kind of new sequel to Hercules and was given a new contract for it, but at a much lower fee than the one he had got for the first Hercules.
 
Let's move on to Sinbad of the Seven Seas, which you wrote the screenplay for and was supposed to direct in 1986. However, you were replaced by fellow Italian director Enzo G. Castellari. What was the reason for your replacement?
 
I wrote the script for Sinbad and it was approved. The movie was due to start in early 1984 but suddenly Cannon rushed into production Assisi Underground, a big budget movie about Jews troubles during wartime, because they were given a lot of money from Israel people to do it. So Sinbad was delayed. Then I went to work doing insects and special effects for Dario Argento's Phenomena (Creepers). In late 1985 Cannon Italy bought many theaters in Italy acquiring them along with Fulvio Lucisano's Italian International, who started to take care also of their movie production here.
 
The result was their decision to do my Sinbad script as a tv movie, so they ordered my script to be enlarged and turned into five one hour lenght episodes. They hired tv writers to enlengthen my script and decided to hire as a director Enzo Castellari, who had a longer tv experience than me. Then they proceeded to do this very long movie. The final result was that my script, perfect for a normal lenght movie, had became too long and even boring, Castellari having also decided to take away from it all of its many special visual effects (my script was totally filled with them) substituting them with classical fight scenes with stuntmen.
 
 
According to Cannon Films, what Castellari brought back was unreleasable, so they shelved it for a few years before hiring you to fix it. What problems were they so concerned with that made them deem it unreleasable?
 
In mid 1988 I was contacted by Cannon and was asked to come and watch the five hours length version of Sinbad they had made and shelved, asking me if I could turn it into a 90 minutes long movie. I saw it and thought this five hours version was incredibly slow-paced and old-fashioned: it was somewhat like a kids' Russian Sinbad movie from the early Forties. But still the main plot came from my script: so I said I accepted their proposal and was given total control. I cut endless talkie scenes, endless stuntmen garbage, shooted a few connecting scenes  and added a real lot of special visual effects. My final 90 minutes version was approved by Cannon and Sinbad was finally released in this new form "doctored" by me. Obviously it was not up to the original quality of the script I had written, but at least somewhat it still reminded it.
 
What changes did you end up making? Roughly how much was cut and how much was filmed to make it releasable?

From the five hours Sinbad they had edited, I took away about four hours. I edited differently and added effects to at least twenty minutes more from the original and shot about ten new minutes (mostly the "frame" sequence with Daria Nicolodi and my daughter Giada).
 
 
Vampire in Venice is another troubled movie you worked on, which went through several different directors. Could you tell us the story behind your departure on the project?
 
I did not depart from Vampire in Venice, I stuck with it from the beginning till the very end of its shooting schedule and even during the two years they later spent in the editing room trying desperately to give a meaning to its senseless plot. Regardless of this fact, I have often been credited in the web as co-directing this movie, which is absolutely false. I was initially hired on Vampire in Venice as being its  special visual effects supervisor, which I was. So I directed the scenes containing special effects: the friars falling from above, the girl jumping down from the bell tower, the moments when Plummer shoots his rifle creating a hole in Nosferatu's stomach and other similar shots. Furthermore, midway through the shooting schedule of this movie I was also asked to do some second unit directing, so I directed several shots of Kinski walking alone at dawn or attacking a lonely girl. Nothing else I did. 
 
The infamous actor Klaus Kinski had the lead role, I bet he was a handful. What was your experience working with him?
 
I'm very determined but also extremely kind and patient. So I succeeded into having a good relationship with Klaus, he never went crazy with me, while he was crazy most of the time with almost all of the other actors and members of the crew.
 
 
You rounded up your directing career in 1989 (not counting the Argento documentaries) with Paganini Horror and The Black Cat. What was it that made you decide to stop directing for so long? You were still quite young, after all.
 
I made Paganini Horror in 1988 and The Black Cat in 1989. After that I realized that independent filmmaking was ending both in Italy and in the US. So I looked around to find something else to sustain me and decided to join my friend Dario Argento's company. I did for him as a special effects supervisor and second unit director Two Evil Eyes (shot in Pittsburgh) and The Stendhal Syndrome. In the meanwhile I also joined Dario running his own horror store, "Profondo Rosso", which he had opened in 1989. Since this store was a big commercial hit, I stood with it and I am still running it today, almost 30 years later. In the meanwhile our horror store has grown also into a book publishing house (I have edited so far more than 110 books about genre movies) and last year it has also produced a new movie directed by me, Blood on Méliés' Moon, which we just released here in Italy on DVD.
 
Photo taken by me. Yupp, I've been there.
 
There is also a museum dedicated to Argento in the basement of the store, helping it become sort of a Mekka for fans of Italian genre films. Was that the idea behind the store all along?
 
Yes, our main idea was to create a meeting point for fans from all over the world. When we opened "Profondo Rosso", our fear was that people could not be interested into that. Instead, since its very opening, crowds of people came, as they had been expecting it to happen since a long time:  it was wonderfull! A daydream come true! Now, nearly thirty years later, I can proudly say we really succeeded into doing that!
 
 
To say that you have garnered a cult fanbase since your retirement would be an understatement. In fact, there's a new documentary about you making the rounds on film festivals called FantastiCozzi. What's the story behind the making of it?
 
About six or seven years ago I was invited to Brazil, where during a horror/sci fi festival named Fantaspoa and held in Porto Alegre they showed all of my movies. During these days a festival man, a very nice guy named Felipe Guerra, taped for hours an interview with me about my life and career. Then he started editing it and finally, during another Fantaspoa in 2016, he showed the final result, a documentary about me titled FantastiCozzi. I was invited to its premiere and was very happy of the result: it's a really good documentary, which since then has been shown in many other festivals all over the world. I also plan to include it as a bonus on the blu-ray edition of my new movie, Blood on Melies' Moon, that we're currently preparing for 2018.
 
 
Last year you came out of retirement to direct again for the first time in over 25 years and made Blood on Méliés' Moon. What prompted you to get back to directing again?
 
I started shooting Blood on Melies' Moon in late 2014 and went on till mid-2016, when it was finally completed and released. It had started very casually, just as a game, because some French fans had just asked me to play a role in their new short. After a while the project was abandoned by them, but I liked the idea, so I resurrected it and went ahead all by myself, with some help by many friends.
 
Was it a learning experience, since a lot has changed in moviemaking over the past 25 years?
 
I worked with young guys and with a totally unexperienced crew. So in the end they said they had learnt a lot from me! Actually I did use all of my past experience to teach and guide them. Practically I had to supervise everything, from executive producer to d.p., from the sets to the production schedule, from make-up to costumes... but it has been fun and I liked it. And around me I felt a lot of enthusiasm...

Technically, I felt ok with the new cameras and the computers, today shooting is much faster than it was before and even easier. But remember that I've always been a video fan: in 1983 I shot many FX for my Adventures of Hercules movie with one inch tape and then converted the results to 35mm. At the time they said I was crazy, but time has shown that I was right instead! That was the future!
 
 
I bet a man with your imagination and being a writer/filmmaker, you have several unfilmed scripts laying around somewhere. Is my assumption correct?
 
Yeah, I've written many scripts which went  unproduced, like my Black Pirate, a science fantasy about a black corsair fighting monsters and dragons during pirate times. It was a very similar concept to Pirates of the Caribbean, only written too much in advance, in 1982. I've turned most of my unfilmed scripts into novel form and published them on Italian pulp magazines. Another good one is Star Riders, which American writer A. E. Van Vogt turned into novel form during the Eighties.
 
 
What do you think it is that makes a movie transition to a cult movie and why do you think several of yours has reached that status?
 
I think most of my movies have become cult because they do attract and interest many people being very different and unusual, also displaying a true love for their genre. They also have a soul, they have a heart, they have feelings and give emotions, things which are not so common to be found in movies. Besides, they even have black humour and tongue-in-cheek twists...
 
 
Out of all the movies you've made, which ones are you the most proud of, and why?
 
Most of my movies are different one from the other, though being very personal. I've made a love story which became a big hit (Dedicated to a Star, also known as The Last Concert or Take All of Me), which showcases my directorial qualities at their best, having worked with just two characters since the beginning to the end. I've also made Starcrash, which is a really good fairy tale for children and adults alike, or Hercules, a new way of doing a sword-and-sandals movie which patterned the way to many imitations, or The Killer Must Kill Againwhich is the exact opposite of every normal Italian giallo movie, or The Black Cat... The Tunnel Under the World... the new Blood on Melies' Moon, which is the first movie made by me which has got many good reviews and plauses, surprising me, because surely it's my wildest and most personal movie so far.
 
 
When I'm looking at your career and the movies you've made, I think what shines through the most is your undying passion for movies as a medium. Do you consider yourself lucky to have been able to work and create something you love so much?
 
I love cinema, I've lived for cinema, I adore and study it, its history and its possible new forms in the future. And I've even succeeded into making a way of living of my passion for movies, which it is not easy... and actually it's not been easy for me. But cinema is my life...
 
 
Do you have any advice for filmmakers out there who are trying to make their big break, or just getting a movie done?
 
Today it is technically much easier to do a movie: you can even do it with your mobile. But cinema is much more than that: a movie can be technically perfect, but still being a lousy and useless one. Movies to be good need a story, need to give EMOTIONS to their audience. If a movie is technically so and so, but it has a good story, then people'll like it anyhow. So, when you do a new movie, first of all you need to have a strong story to tell, a story with an idea... otherwise it'll be all a waste of time. Don't start to do a new movie until you've a very good script for it! The script (the story, the idea...) is the key!
 
Finally, how would you like to be remembered as a director and writer?
 
I am a writer and I am also a director. While I can't live without writing... while I can't live even without watching and studying movies... well, I can live if I'm not directing. But obviously I feel better when I'm also directing and creating...

 
Ett jättestort tack till Luigi Cozzi för intervjun! Ni kan beställa filmer, böcker och lite allt möjligt från butiken Profondo Rosso via hemsidan, men ska ni till Rom någon gång MÅSTE ni verkligen göra ett besök till butiken, som ni hittar här.
20000 Leagues Under the Sea - 4 Flies on Grey Velvet - AIP - Alien - American International Pictures - Assisi Underground - Blood on Melies' Moon - Cannon Films - Contamination - Cozzilla - Creepers - Daria Nicolodi - Dario Argento - David Hasselhoff - Dedicated to a Star - Dino De Laurentiis - Electric Boogaloo: The Wild, Untold Story of Cannon Films - Elle - Enemy from Space - Enzo G. Castellari - Famous Monsters of Filmland - Fantaspoa - FantastiCozzi - Felipe Guerra - Forry Ackerman - Galassia - George Lucas - Giallo - Goblin - Godzilla - Hercules - Invaders From Mars - Invasion of the Body Snatchers - It Came from Outer Space - King Kong - Klaus Kinski - Kronos: Conqueror of the Universe - Lou Ferrigno - Menahem Golan - New World Pictures - Nosferatu - Paganini Horror - Paramount Pictures - Phenomena - Pirates of the Caribbean - Ray Harryhausen - Roger Corman - Roger Corman's Cult Classics - Sam Arkoff - Shout! Factory - Sinbad of the Seven Seas - Son of Kong - Space Vampires - Star Riders - Star Wars - Starcrash - Stop Motion - Take All of Me - The Adventures of Hercules II - The Apple - The Black Cat - The Cat People - The Creeping Unknown - The H-Man - The Killer Must Kill Again - The Last Concert - The Mind Thing - The Seven Magnificent Gladiators - The Stendhal Syndrome - The Thing - The Tunnel Under the World - Them! - Things to Come - Toho - Two Evil Eyes - Vampire in Venice - Yoram Globus

Intervju med Sam Firstenberg

 
(Eftersom Sam tänker dela den här intervjun på sin hemsida och Facebook har jag valt att skriva inledningen på engelska.)
 
It's been close to a year since I started this blog and when I knew that one of the things I wanted to offer my readers were interviews, Sam Firstenberg was one of the first names I wrote down on a list of possible subjects. I did so because I'm a huge fan of his work, which represents everything I love about the action genre. I wrote him about three months ago, telling him about my plans for a future Sam Firstenberg theme week and asked him if an interview would be possible. It took less than a day before I received a kind reply from him where he granted my request.
 
Now, my mom did a good job teaching me and my brother manners, to be polite, at a very young age. For instance, if a family member or friend of the family ever took us out to buy ice cream or McDonald's, we always took the cheapest option, or closest to. We didn't ask for the Big Mac meal, we chose the small meal. We didn't ask for the biggest ice cream, we got the (only Swedes will get this) Piggelin instead. So I don't know what came over me when Sam granted my request, but I started writing question after question after question. When I was finished, there were 69 of them.

Against everything my mom taught me and my brother, I sent the questions to Sam, all 69 of them. This is the equivalent to ordering the biggest meal at McDonald's or getting the most expensive ice cream at the store when being offered. I wanted to provide my readers with a good interview, sure, but it was just as much for selfish purposes. I live for the kind of movies Sam perfected making during his years with Cannon Films and I guess I just couldn't help myself, there was just too much I wanted to know and provide my readers with.
 
I basically apologized off the bat for the overwhelming amount of questions, telling him he only needed to answer the questions he wanted to. About a month later, I received the questions back, answered. All 69 of them. I couldn't believe it. Maybe he admired my chutzpah, or, more likely, that's just the kind of man Sam is. Either way I am forever grateful and it is now my honor to present you all with this interview with the one and only - Sam Firstenberg. Enjoy.
 
 
Tell us a little bit about your background and how you came to work in the movie business.
 
I grew up in Jerusalem during the fifties, and the country was very poor. It had a very lefty, socialist kind of atmosphere, In my neighborhood there was this little theatre that used to play double movies, and we used to go as kids to see whatever was playing, whether it was war movies, Tarzan, that kind of films, so I had a great love of films, an attachment to films, from a young age. So, when I was 21, after finishing high school and serving in the military, I came to America with a purpose. Filmmaking was my goal.
 
I was born in Poland, but grew up in Jerusalem, and obtained my higher education in Los Angeles, California where I now reside with my wife and three daughters. In 1972, I worked my way up the ranks, starting as a stagehand and production assistant and then as an assistant director. During this time I completed my higher education, earning my B.A. and M.A. in Cinema, and at the same time directing numerous shorts which eventually led to my first full feature directorial debut.
 
In December of 1973, as a twenty-three year old film student at Los Angeles’ Columbia College, I met Menahem Golan at a New Year's Eve party, suddenly found myself in the room with him, and during the party I learned that he was about to embark on the production of Lepke. I expressed my desire to be part of it, or more exactly, just to be around. Learning that I was willing to work even without a salary, I was invited to join the production the next day. For the next few years I worked for Golan and Globus off and on as general “go for” office runner, second assistant director, and finally my first AD job. Golan was pleased with my enthusiasm and dedication, and kept me on to work on future productions and office chores. Working on films and studying at the same time, I earned my Bachelor's degree in 1975, and I continued to work, now as an assistant director, in fifteen pictures over five years.
 
 
In an earlier conversation with me when I mentioned the blaxploitation theme I was having on my blog, you mentioned you had worked with Richard Roundtree on Diamonds as a second assistant director. Naturally I'm very curious, what was Shaft himself like?
 
After producing ”Lepke” Golan was trying to produce another movie in Hollywood but without success. At some point he put together the cast for his script Diamonds with Robert Shaw and Richard Roundtree to be filmed in Israel, I was the runner of his office then and he agreed that I will come with him to Israel to be a second Assistant Director and that is how I met Shaft. This was many years ago, to the best of my memory he was a very gentle and pleasant man. In Israel the movie ”Shaft” was not a very popular one so some people recognized him in the street but mostly not.
 
 
Could you tell us about your first two movies as a director that most are probably not very familiar with, the dramas For the Sake of the Dog and One More Chance?
 
After completing the work on the movie Diamonds I became Assistant Director in many Israeli movies but as time passed by I realized that that was not what I wanted to do, my goal was to direct so instead of just waiting for some producer to give me a check to do so I took an initiative. I wrote a script for a short film named ”For the Sake of the Dog” and using my own money and many volunteers from the industry I set to shot and edit this 30 minutes short. The movie was screened in the Israeli television and later on invited to participate in the Los Angeles ”Filmex” international film exposition in 1979.
 
Later on in the fall of 1979, I was working towards a Master's degree in Film at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. Walking down the hall during a break between classes, I spotted a fellow film student dressed as he was, in typical Israeli garb - shorts and sandals. This was the beginning of my partnership with David Womark, which would lead to the student production of a full-length feature film, the first in the history of the film school. With school facilities, equipment and classmate crew available to us and plenty of chutzpah and ingenuity, David and I convinced the faculty to let them expand my half hour master's thesis into a full-length movie. Based on my own script, I recruited then-unknown actors Kirstie Alley (of Cheers), Johnny LaMotta (of Alf), and Michael Pataki.
 
Everyone volunteered their time and the project took off. Now we had to somehow find money for developing the negative. We took $15,000 in student loans, and deposited it in the bank as credit against the cost of processing the negative. As soon as the lab checked with the bank and gave us a line of credit, we withdrew the money for shooting costs, and started depositing film in the lab. We figured out that if we didn't pick up the negatives, we wouldn't be billed. Using this ploy, we shot without looking at the dailies, depositing miles of film, until one day a call came from the head of the lab's warehouse - "Either you come pick up this film or I'm throwing it out!" We went down to the lab where we found seventy cans of film and an angry manager who presented us with a bill for $30,000 and a demand for the money. After he calmed down a bit, we explained the situation to him, we convinced him that the only way we could pay the bill was for him to release the work-print to us so we could edit it and find a producer to bail us out. I think at some level he must have liked our chutzpah - at any rate, he agreed!
 
At this point, after one year of shooting weekends, and living on sandwiches and coffee, we had an unfinished film on our hands and no way to continue. I turned to Menahem Golan, an Israeli film producer who had just become the head of Cannon Films. Although I had only worked as an assistant for him, Golan was impressed with my energy and ambitious drive, and seeing potential in what had been shot so far, agreed to finance the rest of the movie. Both of the movies are social dramas dealing with the struggle of an ordinary citizen against the authorities.
 
 
You then went into a different direction and started making action movies, the first one being Revenge of the Ninja. Talk about taking a fish out of the sea, throwing it on land and tell it to start walking! I mean that's one of the wildest action movies I've ever seen, and I've seen a lot. Was the transition from making drama to action an easy one for you?
 
I just finished the work on my first directorial film ”One More Chance” when producer Menahem Golan was preparing to produce ”Revenge of the Ninja” a sequel to ”Enter the Ninja” he produced and directed earlier on. Since he did not want to direct it he was looking for someone to replace him. Golan was willing to take a chance on me. He knew I could put a movie together; I had proven that I could construct a scene, shoot, and edit logically.
 
The big question was whether I could handle action, could I tackle a fight sequence or a chase. Clearly I did not have experience in these areas, but when he asked if I could do it, with utmost confidence I gave a positive yes. I knew I was not going to let this once in a lifetime opportunity slip away. Apparently my self confidence assured them so the next question was what kind of salary I would demand. I told Golan to pay me whatever he saw fit and so the deal was made and I was given the script and asked to start pre-production immediately, with David Womark as line producer.
 
It is true that directing action takes some expertise but in my opinion any director that understands the cinematic language, filming and editing should be able to put together an action sequence. I had good teachers to usher me into the world of action cinema and I learned fast and found it challenging and yet satisfactory to direct action.
 
 
So, you got to work with the man who has become the symbol of the word ninja – Shô Kosugi. What can you tell us about him? Is he as impressive as the movies make him out to be?
 
So here I was, ready to tackle the challenge of my first big action flick. I was handed the script and introduced to Sho Kosugi, the tallest Japanese person I had ever met. Sho was the spirit behind the project, an accomplished martial arts fighter and Ninjitsu expert who had come a few years earlier to Los Angeles with Hollywood on his mind. Although I was familiar with Japanese samurai movies - I love the films of Akira Kurosawa, I knew very little of the Hong Kong Kung Fu genre and nothing about Ninjitsu.
 
Sho introduced me to both martial arts and Ninjitsu. We bought a few books and together watched many Chinese movies, without subtitles in theaters full of Chinese speaking audience members. Trying to digest all the information as fast as I could, I started to work on the script and construct a story board. Sho was working with the writer, Jim Silke, and me. He was the Ninjitsu advisor and in this capacity he made sure that every known Ninja weapon and every Ninja fighting trick, method, custom, ceremony, and accessories, would be included in the script.
 
 
Kosugi's real son, Kane, plays the son of his character in the movie. Was that a demand from his side, to get his son a part?
 
I don’t know, when I got involved the script was already written and the character of Kane was in it.
 
Kane's skills were pretty amazing; did he need a lot of prepping before filming the fight scenes?
 
All the preparation of Kane was done by Sho, so before filming his fight scene he was always ready.
 
 
That final fight at the top of the building is quite thrilling and very elaborate. How long did that sequence take to shoot?
 
It took more than a week to film that entire scene on the roof from beginning to end.
 
With Revenge of the Ninja, you actually made history as that was the first Hollywood movie with a Japanese man in the leading role. Do you feel that's a fact that often gets overlooked?
 
It is true that I directed the movie but the decision to make a Hollywood film with a Japanese leading man was Menahem Golan’s not mine. But since I directed it I guess it makes me also part of this historical event.
 
 
As impressive as that final fight in Revenge of the Ninja was, it doesn't compare to the first 15 minutes of your next movie – Ninja III: The Domination. I have to tell you, that intro is absolutely crazy! If the movie had ended after those 15 minutes, it would have been the best movie ever made, I'm sure of it, screw Citizen Kane! With that said, kicking off the movie with such an explosive start, did you find it hard to keep up that kind of entertainment for the 75 remaining minutes? I mean nothing could top that opening.
 
First of all thanks for the compliments but more to the point when making a low budget movie the director with his producing team have to make a decision how to allocate the limited budget. I like to open the action movies I directed with a bang; big action sequence to set up the tone but to keep up that pace for 90 minutes a much bigger budget is needed so for me it is big opening, big ending, big sequence in the middle and at least one big chase.
 
How many days did you spend shooting that epic opening?
 
We usually allocate to every major action sequence one week with two filming units and the a second unit stays behind to complete a shooting list I leave behind while the main filming unit moves on to shoot the next scheduled scene. Once in a while I like to check in on the second unit and see if they are advancing according to my vision.
 
 
With Ninja III, Lucinda Dickey took a break in-between shooting Breakin' 1 and 2 and tried her hand at becoming a ninja. As an experienced dancer, did she handle the fight choreography well?
 
The truth is that we cast Lucinda Dickey for the lead part of Ninja 3 before the first Breakin’ movie was even conceived. After we finished the filming Menahem Golan suggested her for the Break Dance movie the company started to prepare. In the order of distribution the first Breakin’ came out before Ninja 3.
 
Kosugi returns for the final part of the trilogy, but doesn't appear until around 30 minutes into the movie. Compared to his screen time as the lead in Revenge of the Ninja, he has a significantly smaller part in Ninja III: The Domination. Why was that decision made?
 
The producer Menaham Golan decided to move the Ninja franchise away from an Asian hero toward an American lead, for some reason in Ninja 3 he preferred it to be a woman. Sho was against it and agreed to participate in the movie only if he plays an expert that comes in and resolves the problem that a female Ninja cannot resolve by herself. Because of the nature of the story structure his character appears only 30 minutes into the movie.
 
 
Do you know if this upset Kosugi? I ask because he never made another movie for Cannon Films and made entertaining ninja movies with companies like Crown International Pictures and Trans World Entertainment instead.
 
My impression was that the fact that Menahem Golan decided not to have him in the lead part upset Sho Kosugi very much and therefore at the first opportunity he had to work with other companies, he left Cannon Films.
 
There are pictures from the movie floating around which shows that Kosugi actually had a lot more scenes in the movie which were cut. Do you know roughly how many minutes of his scenes were cut and if they still exist somewhere? It's a shame they weren't added as a special feature on the Shout! Factory Blu-ray release.
 
The rule in Cannon Films was that the length of all the movies we made was 95 minutes. Because of this restriction almost in every movie we had to keep some scenes out. Usually we left out scenes that were not as strong as the once that made it into the final cut. I don’t remember today what was cut out and I don’t think that when MGM took over the Cannon material they also took over the extra material of outtakes and unused scenes.
 
 
Other than the fighting scenes which I'm sure was all him, did Kosugi perform most of his own stunts?
 
Sho Kosugi was a very capable martial artist and accomplished athlete so in all action and fight scenes he performed his own stuff unless it was dangerous or called for special skill, only then a body double or stunt double would step in and take his place.
 
Apparently, you weren't satisfied with having made the craziest ninja movie ever, so you went ahead and made the craziest dance movie ever with Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo. How did that come about and was it a refreshing break in-between making ninja movies?
 
The director of Breakin’ was Joel Silbert and as far as I know he was supposed to direct the sequel. I don’t know why he did not, and I never asked, but at some point after the release of the movie Ninja III: The Domination that I directed with the same actress of Breakin’, Lucinda Dickey (Kelly), I was asked by the head of Cannon Films, Menahem Golan, to take over the directing of Breakin’ 2: Electric Boogaloo. It was as simple as that and yes it was very refreshing to direct it.
 
 
Had you seen the first Breakin' before making the sequel?
 
Yes I did.
 
Whose idea was it to make it so different in tone from the previous Breakin' movie?
 
The crew responsible for Breakin’ 2 namely the art director, the dance choreographer, the wardrobe designer, cinematographer, and myself as a director did not feel compelled to adhere to the tone and look of the first movie so in a way it was a cumulative decision. The “look” of the film is a result of the talks I conducted with the production designer during the pre-production period. It was our intention to exaggerate it to a point of saturation to create excitement, youthfulness and hope.
 
 
The first Breakin' was reportedly made in only 3 weeks, in order to be released ahead of another movie about breakdancing from Orion Pictures, Beat Street. How long was the shooting schedule for Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo?
 
It is absolute nonsense; it is impossible to make a movie the size of Breakin’ with its many dance numbers and other large scenes in 3 weeks. In any case it took us nine week of six working days each with two cameras units to complete the filming of Breakin’ 2 Electric Boogaloo.
 
There's a nice tribute to Fred Astaire's infamous ceiling dance in it, which two years later Lionel Richie also did a version of. Was that scene hard to set up and shoot?
 
It was not simple but with the knowledge and equipment we have here in Hollywood it was sufficiently accomplished. The idea to add a scene of Turbo dancing on the ceiling was Menahem’s. It was indeed inspired by a similar scene of Fred Astaire in the movie Royal Wedding. The way a tricky dance like this is done is by building a room that can be rotated a full circle upside down all the way. The camera is anchored to the floor and goes up when the ceiling comes down and the dancer on it. In the final shot it looks like the dancer is on the ceiling dancing upside down. The only difficult part is that everything in the windows and all the lighting setup has to rotate with the rotating room. The dancer also faces a challenge in reorienting himself every second to the revolving reality around him.
 
 
A nice surprise for me as a long time fan of Ice-T was to see him have a role in it. I think shock is a better word to describe it, because the outfit he wore in his first scene would probably ruin his image if he, the Godfather of gangsta rap, ever wore it out on the streets in real life. Do you have any memories of Ice-T to share?
 
Not in particular. Ice T was one of the first rappers and he was there when needed, doing his performance on stage as needed. I did not have to give him any directorial directions unless they were technical like where to stand and when to start. Other than that all we had to do is film his performance the best we could.
 
 
There are pictures of Muhammad Ali visiting the set at one point. Tell us about that.
 
One day while filming on location in Los Angeles, out of the blue, the legendary Muhammad Ali popped up on the set to see what we are doing in his neighborhood. It turned out that his house was next door to the one we were shooting in (former house of silent films star Mary Pickford) The Champ was very gracious, playful and friendly to everyone. It was quite an excitement and so we took a photo with him to commemorate the event.
 
 
Was the choreography set in stone or did you allow the dancers to improvise their moves?
 
I don’t understand anything in choreographing dances, we had a great chorographer Bill Goodson and he was in charge of the dancers, I am sure that he allowed the dancers to also improvise some moves here and there.
 
What do you feel is the harder thing to shoot - fight or dance choreography?
 
A dance number can be filmed uninterrupted from beginning to end again and again several times and all that is really needed are good dancers. Fight sequence in the other hand is very technical, segmented and at times dangerous, so it has to be filmed in segments and with extra care. Each of them presents its own unique challenges when it comes to filming them.
 
 
After Breakin' 2, you went back to making ninja movies, this time with Michael Dudikoff and Steve James in American Ninja 1 and 2. Dudikoff was not a martial artist when you made the first one, though I gather he got into martial arts later. Was it hard coming off of Revenge and The Domination where your lead actor could do every possible thing you wanted him to, while now having to rely on doubles and using certain angles that made it less obvious Dudikoff was being doubled for some shots?
 
First of all in Ninja III: the Domination, Lucinda Dickey was not a Martial Artist but rather a dancer and the people in charge of the fights choreography taught her all the necessary moves and being a dancer she picked up on them very fast. Michael Dudikoff was in top physical shape when he started American Ninja and for two weeks prior to filming he trained with top Martial Artist and our fight choreographer Mike Stone. Most of the stuff that you see him performing in the movie Michael did by himself guided by the fight choreographer and stunt coordinator Steve Lambert. Naturally at some dangerous points and when specific expertise was needed we used stunt doubles the way it is done in every action movie.
 
 
Steve James on the other hand, was an accomplished martial artist. This created some tension between them according to Steve, since that made Michael somewhat insecure. Do you remember any of this tension and did it create any problems on the set that you as the director had to handle?
 
Not at all.
 
 
You've probably been asked this a bunch of times before, but for those of my readers who don't know, could you tell us about that infamous scene in American Ninja 2 where Michael Dudikoff is in a room with Steve James, talking to a superior officer, but when they leave the room it's clear that Dudikoff's stand-in is walking out? Why was his stand-in in that scene when James didn't use one, and how could that mistake possibly not be spotted by the editor?
 
That particular day Michael Dudikoff was sick but he still stayed and did the scene in the office. Once we finished all his and Steve James on camera angles it was time to shoot from behind their back, since we had a very good body double for Michael to stand in for him, I sent him back to the hotel to rest. In the final editing we were supposed to see the double only from his back but because at the time the editors used editing machines with a tiny screen he did not notice that it was not Michael and used his exit by mistake.
 
 
Having already done American Ninja 1 and 2, what was it that kept you from continuing with the franchise, which went on to make another two sequels? Were you just tired of ninjas?
 
No, I was not offered to direct those two sequels. The company decided to dramatically reduce the budget of the installments of the franchise and as a unionized director my salary became too expensive for them to pay and still achieve that low budget target, instead they hired a South African director and made the movies there with much shorter schedule and lower budget.
 
While it was Chuck Norris' The Octagon that first brought the ninja to the attention of moviegoers in the west, there's no doubt the ninja movies you were involved in is what made the ninja huge. Do you take pride in knowing things like Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles probably wouldn't have brought so much joy to kids all over the world if it wasn't for you, Shô Kosugi, Michael Dudikoff and Cannon Films?
 
Yes it is quite flattering.
 
 
Believe it or not, during this ninja craze of the 1980's, there were a couple of Swedish ninja movies made. Most notable is Mats Helge Olssson's The Ninja Mission, which was a huge hit around the world and one of Sweden's highest grossing movies ever. Apparently, the producers even approached Golan & Globus and asked them to distribute the movie. Did you know about this and have you seen the movie? I could send you a copy if you'd like.
 
No, unfortunately I never heard about that movie.
 
 
I'm sending you a copy. You also made Avenging Force with Dudikoff and James, which is a sequel to Invasion U.S.A. with Chuck Norris. Could you tell us why Norris didn't reprise his role as Matt Hunter?
 
I was never told why Chuck Norris did not want to do Avenging Force (than it was called Night Hunter) but there are few different speculations floating around in the internet.
 
 
I think it would have been better if they had changed the name of the character, because they weren't very similar in my opinion. While Chuck Norris' Hunter was this unstoppable killing machine, Dudikoff's Hunter was much more human and vulnerable. Was the script changed to suit Dudikoff's on screen persona more when it was clear that Norris wouldn't be involved?
 
The only change that was made to the script was that instead of the little girl being Matt’s daughter she became his sister. Michael was too young to have a daughter.
 
 
Would you agree that it is the most brutal movie you ever did? I mean except for Hunter and his little sister, basically every other character we got to care for ended up dying, including two kids.
 
Yes you are right, but at the same time it is the best action movie I directed.
 
The way the movie ended opened up the door for more entries in the franchise, do you know if there were plans to make another one?
 
James Booth the writer planned it that way but we were sent by Cannon films to do American Ninja 2 right away and for some reason the company never perused that option.
 
 
The man who wrote the script for Hard Target seems to have borrowed some stuff from Avenging Force, namely the hunting aspects of the movie and the location, since both of them take place in New Orleans. Have you thought the same thing?
 
The men hunting idea is not totally original it appears in movies and literature in many variations for a long time, so you might be right but only to a certain degree.
 
I think you hit the nail right on the head when you said in Electric Boogaloo: The Wild, Untold Story of Cannon Films that Dudikoff should have been put in bigger movies with bigger budgets, not smaller ones. I think he has that natural charm and charisma that worked so well for Jean-Claude Van Damme. Do you think he deserved a similar career to the one Van Damme had in the late 80's and into the 90's?
 
Of course he deserved a greater career, Michael has the charisma and on screen presence of a great action hero. He should have been involved in much bigger budget movies.
 
 
You worked with Steve James in a total of four movies before he sadly passed away at the age of 41 in 1993. Could you tell us a bit about Steve James the person as well as the actor?
 
Steve James was a sweetheart of a man a real gentle giant. Our work together was pure joy; he loved action movies and was always enthusiastic to do his part on the set. His aspiration was to become the next black action star kind of the new Shaft and the way his career developed he was on his way to achieve that goal. He was an avid collector of “black” movies from all the way back to the beginning of cinema. His collection consisted of more than 4,000 disks and cassettes and in some cases even 16mm prints. Steve was very proud of his chiseled body and in every movie we made together he insisted on taking his shirt off at least one time during a fight or action scene.
 
R.I.P.
 
Another actor you worked a lot with is John LaMotta, who kept getting cast in your movies. Were you the driving force who kept casting him for roles in your movies?
 
Yes, Johnny LaMotta was the lead actor in the first full length movie I directed in 1980 “One more chance” He did it voluntarily and stuck with us throughout the entire filming schedule which was on and off one and a half year long. I always felt that I owe him for being loyal and thereafter cast him in every movie I directed whenever he was available. John LaMotta was a busy actor working all the time in movies, theater, and television.
 
As someone who grew up in the late 80's watching ALF at a very young age and then seeing him in your movies when I got older, he's always been an interesting actor to me. What was he like? Did he always have a cigar in his mouth like so many of his characters did?
 
Johnny LaMotta was a friend of mine until he recently passed away. He was a talented actor, singer, and piano payer so it was always fascinating to watch him perform, and yes, he loved cigars. In the Philippines while filming American Ninja he went to visit a famous local cigar factory to see how they are being rolled and buy them fresh right there.
 
 
Ultimately, Cannon Films went under due to money problems. How did you react to the end of this legendary company?
 
At that point in time when Cannon went away I was already directing movies for other producers and companies so it did not influence me personally. Luckily for me when all of the company assets were divided amongst various creditors all the movies I directed for them went to MGM that is a major distributor. Breakin’ 2 Electric Boogaloo ended up with Columbia Pictures and then Sony Entertainment.
 
What was it like working for them and how do they compare to other studios you've worked for?
 
I have known Menahem and Yoram for many years as mentioned earlier, many years before I directed Revenge of the Ninja - I worked as an assistant director on many of their films, even one that Menahem Golan directed (Diamonds with Robert Shaw). The way they worked was that Yoram Globus was in charge of finances, and had little input on the creative side; Menahem Golan was the creative producer, involved in all the stages of making the movies. His main interest was in the script and in the editing.
 
 
Were Golan and Globus easy to get along with, or did you have a lot of disagreements over some projects?
 
When it came to business Golan and Globus were not easy people to get along with and at times we probably had some disagreements but there were not too many of them. In most of the times we saw things eye to eye and in general I was eventually able to execute my vision in directing movies for them.
 
Did they give you a lot of leeway when you were shooting your movies, or were they more hands-on, making sure the movies came out just the way they wanted them?
 
During the shooting I was basically left alone. I would say that in this sense, it was very easy to work with them, as long as we did not go over budget or exceed the schedule - which I never did. They trusted me and we had a very good relationship.
 
 
There were lots of movies that Cannon was supposed to make that never ended up happening. Were you attached to direct any of those movies that never got made?
 
No I did not, but I was attached to some of Cannon movies that were eventually directed by other directors.
 
When you look back at the huge list of movies made by Cannon Films, is there a movie you wish you could have gotten to direct?
 
Out of all cannon movies I guess Runaway Train and King Solomon's Mines.
 
 
This is a cheap question, and I apologize, but I simply must know. Since you worked for Cannon for so long, did you ever run into Charles Bronson, who is one of my all-time favorite actors?
 
I visited once the set where J. Lee Thompson was directing one of the Charles Bronson movies; out there I ran for the first and only time into Bronson, he was actually a very private and reclusive man, most of the day he kept to himself so no words were exchanged between us.
 
When Cannon Films were no more, you moved to Cannon alumni Avi Lerner's Nu Image/Millennium Films, a similar company to Cannon that is still alive and well 25 years later. Would you say they've kept the Cannon spirit alive?
 
In many aspects, yes Nu Image is the continuation of Cannon Films, some of the key figures just moved from the one to the other, but on the other hand there are of course differences in style and motivation in the way the two companies are run and in their product.
 
 
While you were with them, you worked with David Bradley on several movies. I think I see a pattern here. You seem to enjoy working with actors you are comfortable with, who know how to give you what you want. A lot of great directors have done this, John Carpenter, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Winner and Quentin Tarantino, to name a few. Am I on to something here, or was it just a coincidence that you often worked with so many familiar faces?
 
It was partially coincidental but also has to do with the good relationship I have and maintain with the actors.
 
 
For the first time in your career you worked in television in 1992, on the TV-show Sweating Bullets, which you directed six episodes of. How did you get that gig and what about the project interested you?
 
I was in Israel directing American Samurai when I was invited to meet the producers of this show and after a short interview they offered me to direct few episodes. I was happy to accept the offer since I was always interested to learn how directing for television is different from directing movies.
 
Was it a drastic change from directing a movie and did you adapt easily?
 
Telling a story through visual means is the same in any media be it a huge screen, a television set, or a Smartphone but directing episodes for a television series has a different discipline, working habits, and pace than directing a theatrical movie. In television the director is not an important member of the creative team as he is in films.
 
To date it's the only directing job you've ever done on a TV-show, though you did direct the TV-movie Operation Delta Force. Was it a conscious decision on your part not to work in the TV business?
 
Not at all, I just did not persuade a television career and was not offered again a job in directing for television. I just kept directing movies.
 
 
One oddity in your career that has me curious is that after directing movies for 21 years, you took a small step back and worked as a second unit director in the underrated Tobe Hooper horror movie Crocodile in 2000. How did you happen to work on that movie?
 
I knew Tobe Hooper from the Cannon days and at that point I was directing for Nu Image. Tobe was directing Crocodile for the same company and they needed a second unite director to handle some action sequences in the movie. I was between projects and asked by the producers to take it upon myself. I gladly agreed firstly because it was a chance to be around Tobe Hopper and secondly it was a chance to be involved in a horror picture which I never had an opportunity to do earlier. Consequently it was also beneficial observing and understanding the way giant mechanical puppet operate that came in handy when I directed next the movie Spiders 2.
 
 
 
As previously mentioned, you appeared on the documentary Electric Boogaloo: The Wild, Untold Story of Cannon Films. It has gotten some criticism for focusing too heavy on the bad things people had to say about the company. Do you agree with that criticism? What were your feelings when you first saw it?
 
Mark Hartley, the maker of the documentary, did a fabulous job. He presented his point of view, another film maker might have presented in a different way, and we have to respect it. The movie is getting a lot of praise for the deep research and thorough job that went into the making of it, quite an achievement.
 
 
It's too bad we didn't get to see you in the other documentary produced about Cannon Films, The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films. What's the reason behind that?
 
I was approached to participate but schedule wise it did not work out.
 
You've directed movies with some very memorable villains in them. One of the biggest villains in real life today, according to a lot of the media anyway, is Donald Trump. If you were to make a movie with Donald Trump in one of the roles, would you have him play a hero or a villain? I'm going to go out on a limb here and guess you'd make him play a hero, because if I'm not mistaken (and you can correct me if I'm wrong) he's one of the most pro Israel presidents the US has had in a long time.
 
I tell stories in a fantasyland and it has nothing to do with my political points of view, they are just stories. If someone would pay me well to direct a movie with Donald Trump as a hero or a villain and the script is half decent, I would agree right away, it sure would be an extraordinary experience.
 
"I tell you, Sam, if you'd put me in one of your movies, it would be yuge, I'm talking trillions of dollars at the box office, OK? My cameo in Home Alone 2 made it the greatest success ever. Guardians of the Galaxy, Fast and the Furious, Avengers, they're all fake movies, OK? I'm the real deal and the perfect hero, I tell you I'm great. Just give me a call, it will be great. Oh, and I'll totally use the profits to build that wall."
 
How would you describe your directing style?
 
I follow the old Hollywood classic way of making movies. In every scene, after visually introducing the viewer to the geography and relationship within the scene, and after establishing the mood I strive to place the viewer in the heart of what is happening on the screen, action or dialogue. I achieved it by filming from many various angles and frame sizes from wide “long shots” to “tight” close ups so later on in the editing the editor and me can create visually exciting scenes that gets the viewer emotionally involved.
 
In Electric Boogaloo, you mention that Golan and Globus had that Israeli temperament. Do you also have that and does it affect your actions as a director with the cast and crew? Somehow, you don't strike me as the Michael Winner type...
 
No, strangely enough I do not suffer from the hot headed Israeli Attitude or temperament, maybe it can be contributed to my European upbringing (my parents are from Poland) As a director I always try to be polite never explode and not to be drawn into arguments. I constantly try to maintain a cheerful set keeping the cast and crew happy and positive.
 
 
One thing a lot of your movies have in common is that they are so fun, wild and crazy. Did that tone in the movies rub off on the cast and crew? Did everyone have a good time making the movies?
 
I want to believe that you are right. Making movies is a group effort and we spend so many hours together every day that it is better to have fun while doing it rather than a miserable time. This way we enjoy the process and yes, it rubs off and shows in the final product on the screen.
 
What do you think it is that turns a movie into a cult movie over time and why do you think so many of yours have reached that cult status all these years later?
 
You are asking here the million dollar question. If we knew the answer, if we knew the formula to a successful movie we all could have been millionaires now. But no one knows, it is only that sometimes all the stars are aligned, all the elements come and jell together; the story, the actors, the cinematography, the choreography, the editing, the music, and the right director that ties it all together and the magic happens. It is undeniable that there is some talent involved in the process and the approach. I believe the reason that some of the movies I directed stood the test of time and even gained cult status is that the story is solid, the characters are determined, the path is clear, the action is exciting, it was all taken lightly, it is never boring and the viewer is having fun with what is happening on the screen. It is 90 minutes of good entertainment and escapism.
 
 
Do you keep in touch with any of the people you worked so closely with for so long? Like Yoram Globus, Michael Dudikoff, David Bradley and so on?
 
Regretfully not, from all the actors I worked with I only keep in touch regularly with Michael Dudikoff , Judie Aronson, and Tadashi Yamashita. I was friend also with Steve James until he passed away and David Bradley until he disappeared. Also with crew members and producers I keep in touch with only a few like Frank DeMartini, Steve Lambert, Boaz Davidson, Gideon Amir and few others thanks to Facebook.
 
 
Have you kept any props from your movies over the years? If so, could you name some and which one your favorite is?
 
Regretfully not, I wish that I have kept some items from the movies I directed but unfortunately I did not. At the time of making them we did not know that those movies would become cult classics and have so many followers. The only item I kept is the silver mask of the evil Ninja from Revenge of the Ninja and that only because it was the first big movie I directed so for me it has some nostalgic value.
 
 
Having made several very successful action movies, especially on the international market, with very little budget to work with, you'd think big movie studios would take notice and offer you some bigger project to sink your teeth in. Do you think that being involved with Cannon Films did the opposite and restricted you from making bigger movies with bigger studios, because of Hollywood snobbery?
 
I think so, but I am also partially to blame since I did not vigorously persuade this rout. In Cannon I was guaranteed to direct one movie after the other and in the studio system a director can be stuck in the “development” purgatory working many years on developing scripts and projects that never materialize. So I chose the path of doing and not waiting but yet it is too bad I never got the chance to direct a big budget studio movie.
 
You haven't directed a movie since 2003, but I'm sure you could easily still be making them if you wanted to with Avi Lerner and Nu Image/Millennium Films. So, why did you decide to hang up your director's chair?
 
The budgets of the type of action movies I used to direct have shrunk so much that it is ridiculous, directors are asked to do them in five weeks and we used to make them in 8 or 9 weeks with two units. I don’t know of a way that one can direct a decent action movie with such a low budget and short schedule and I rather not be involved in this kind of film making. On the other hand I am not being offered to direct big budget movies or even low budget non action films so I concentrate on other creative activities like designing and building furniture which might not be that exciting but very satisfying without the aggravation.
 
 
It's safe to say your career has been dominated by action movies. Was it always your hope to become an action director?
 
Not at all; at the beginning I saw myself as a director that will direct social dramas maybe adventures but not action. It just came my way and then I was offered to direct those action movies one after the other and I did. But as I was directing them I embraced the challenge and enjoyed doing them.
 
You directed 23 movies in 24 years, which one would you say was the most difficult to make?
 
Avenging Force was physically draining, the most challenging and demanding movie I directed. Day after day in the Louisiana swamps directing action in the rain many times all night long in a location that was one and a half hour drive from the hotel we stayed in. This one was difficult to make but it looks great.
 
 
Which one would you call your favorite and why?
 
It is hard to say I love Breakin’ 2 Electric Boogaloo for its fun good filling atmosphere, I like Riverbend for it controversial subject. Avenging Force for its excellence in story and execution, and American Ninja for its sense of innocence.
 
Which one is your least favorite and what happened during the process of making the movie that it ended up being so disappointing?
 
Let’s say that I am not crazy about McCinsey's Island. During the making of it I was not clear about the storyline, the end goal of the characters, and the type of movie I was directing so all in all I am disappointed with the results.
 
 
Finally, how would you like to be remembered as a director?
 
Hopefully as one that succeeded in directing movies that brought joy, excitement, and thrill to the viewers that watched them. Enabled them to transform for 90 minutes from this reality to another reality where the just overcomes the evil, where dreams and wishes are fulfilled and there are always happy endings. Movies that are fun to watch.
 
Mission accomplished, Sam. Anything you'd like to point my readers to?
 
In my website www.samfirstenberg.com the readers can find more stories, photos and related material. I have a Facebook page with updates and a photo album “Tales from the Movies” with many photos, each accompanied by a short story, a memory, or anecdote. All worth visiting.
 
All the best to everyone, Sam.
 
Thank you, Sam.
 
Sam, the family man
 
If those of you who read this interview found it interesting, I'm sure you'll love Marc Siedelmann's upcoming career-spanning interview book with Sam Firstenberg, promised to be loaded with unique badass film history. The book is called Stories From the Trenches: Adventures in Making High Octane Hollywood Movies With Cannon Veteran Sam Firstenberg, which just a few days ago reached its Kickstarter goal and will be available within six months after the campaign ends on May 15th.
 
You can still visit the Kickstarter page and pre-order the digital book version for 16 Euros or the actual book for 30 Euros. You think this interview was long? The book will be an estimated 600 pages! I've got my copy pre-ordered and if you're a fan of Sam or just entertaining, badass action movies, I can't imagine anyone regretting doing the same.
 
 
Thank you all for reading and a special thanks of course to Sam Firstenberg for his time and all the pictures he provided the interview with!
Akira Kurosawa - Alfred Hitchcock - American Ninja - American Ninja 2 - American Samurai - Avenging Force - Avi Lerner - Beat Street - Blaxploitation - Boaz Davidson - Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo - Cannon Films - Charles Bronson - Cheers - Chuck Norris - Citizen Kane - Crocodile - Crown International Pictures - David Bradley - David Womark - Diamonds - Donald Trump - Electric Boogaloo: The Wold, Untold Story of Cannon Films - Enter the Ninja - For the Sake of the Dog - Fred Astaire - Hard Target - Hong Kong - Ice-T - Invasion U.S.A. - J. Lee Thompson - Jean-Claude Van Damme - Joel Silbert - John Carpenter - John LaMotta - Johnny Lamotta - Judie Aronson - Kane Kosugi - Kirstie Alley - Lepke - Lionel Richie - Lucinda Dickey - Marc Siedelmann - Mark Hartley - Mats Helge Olsson - McCinsey's Island - Menahem Golan - Michael Dudikoff - Michael Pataki - Michael Winner - Millennium Films - Muhammad Ali - Night Hunter - Ninja - Ninja III: The Domination - Ninjitsu - Nu Image - One More Chance - Operation Delta Force - Orion Pictures - Quentin Tarantino - Revenge of the Ninja - Richard Roundtree - Robert Shaw - Royal Wedding - Sam Firstenberg - Shaft - Sho Kosugi - Shout! Factory - Spiders 2 - Steve James - Stories From the Trenches: Adventures in Making High Octane Hollywood Movies With Cannon Veteran Sam Firstenberg - Sweating Bullets - Tadashi Yamashita - Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - The Go-Go Boys: The Inside Story of Cannon Films - The Ninja Mission - The Octagon - Tobe Hooper - Trans World Entertainment - Yoram Globus

Intervju med Josiah Howard - författaren till Blaxploitation Cinema: The Essential Reference Guide

Foto taget av Kamron Hinatsu
 
Josiah Howard är författaren till Blaxploitation Cinema: The Essential Reference Guide och är världens ledande expert inom ämnet blaxploitation. När jag bestämde mig för att ha en temavecka kring genren kontaktade jag honom nästan omgående angående möjligheten att få intervjua honom. Jag fick ett vänligt och upplyftande svar inom 24 timmar och började genast jobba på frågorna jag skulle ställa till honom.
 
How and when were you first introduced to the blaxploitation genre and why do you think it had such a lasting effect on you?

I first became fascinated by the films through their bombastic poster art. In the seventies the promotion was everywhere; on movie marquees, on public transportation and, of course, in newspapers and magazines. I had never seen young black people with large Afros and Bell Bottoms toting sawed off shotguns before. It was pretty exciting! I was too young to go and actually see the movies at the time but I was obsessed with the posters. I was the first kid at the theater when they changed the posters each week!
 

What do you think it is about blaxploitation, which is a genre very much of its time, that still appeals to audiences today, including honkies like myself who weren’t even born when they were made?

The pictures are timeless because the stories are about people wanting to make their dreams come true: by whatever means possible. The only difference is the presentation. Most of the characters in blaxploitation films operate outside of the law and are African American. But the dream is the same for everyone, everywhere. Additionally, the pictures are cultural artifacts: windows into the 1970s American experience.
 
 
Where do you stand on the fact that movies with the derogatory N-word in the title have now been released with different titles? To use an example, Fred “The Hammer” Williamson’s Boss Nigger was released simply as Boss on DVD. Do you think it's a good thing to censor original movie titles?

Censorship on any level is always the wrong way to go. I think changing the title of a film—which is a creative work; a piece of art—is like going to a museum with a paint brush and saying “I can make this painting better” and painting over it. The titles of blaxploitation films are written in time and should remain as such. I understand the new politically correct climate that we live in and I think political correctness has its place but I also stand by the intent of the distributors making decisions that better position them to sell entertainment product. If the safer re-titling of the films expands the audience, that’s a good thing.
 
 
One thing I love about exploitation movies is that, in lack of funds to promote them the way big studios can, a lot of effort is put into the poster art to lure in audiences. Blaxploitation is a great example of this and your book has a large amount of poster art for the reader to enjoy exploring. Out of all the awesome artwork to choose from for the cover of your book, you chose the poster for the 1972 movie Hit Man. What motivated you to choose that one particular poster? Is it simply your favorite and if not, which one is?

The publisher—Plexus Books—and I both agreed that the Hit Man image would be a great book cover. You not only get the black man with the funky clothes and the gun, you also get a bulls-eye; a target! It made a visual impact. For a while we considered Coffy, but that image is over circulated. We wanted something new and relatively unseen.

If I had to pick a favorite blaxploitation move poster it would be 1972’s Trouble Man. I love the fractured mirror image illustration. The colorful repetition and the use of gunshot holes in the calligraphy is thrilling. Of course that’s also a detail in the Blaxploitation Cinema cover art. It says: “there’s been a shooting here; pay attention, watch out!”
 
 
In the review section of your book, you include Black Mama, White Mama, The Big Doll House, The Big Bird Cage and Women in Cages. I've personally never viewed those particular movies as blaxploitation because I don't think they offer a lot of components found in the genre, apart from being made in The Philippines like other blaxploitation movies and starring Pam Grier. I view them as strictly Women in Prison movies. Can you make a case for them belonging to the blaxploitation genre?

My criteria for categorizing a film as blaxploitation is straightforward. I define the films as theatrically released motion pictures (between 1970-1980) that were conceived, green lit and first and foremost promoted to inner city black audiences. Using this broad definition, which I more thoroughly outline in Blaxploitation Cinema, many “gray area” pictures make the cut. Many film fans don’t believe that Mahogany and Greased Lightening, should be in the book, but I beg to differ—and it’s an ongoing argument!

Blaxploitation films are really “exploitation” films; that’s where the hybrid name comes from. They’re low budget pictures made for the Drive-In and “downtown” theater market. Black people experienced films like The Big Doll House and Women in Cages as a Blaxploitation film—not as a Woman in Prison film. Additionally blaxploitation films were often shown on Double Bills. This under-discussed approach to distribution should also be considered. If you went to the theater to see two pictures and one was clearly defined as Blaxploitation (40 of the films have the word “black” in the title by the way), what was your experience of the accompanying film? Why were they paired? And when you related seeing the pictures did you make a genre distinction? Probably not.
 
 
Now, if there was a significant amount of money to be made using very little, you know B-movie king Roger Corman would have his piece of the pie. How do you feel his output compares to others? He was one of the people who first took blaxploitation out of the ghetto and into the Philippines, wasn't he?

Absolutely: Viva Roger Corman! He along with producer Cirio Santiago are responsible for putting the Philippine movie market on the international map. While American producers were racking their brains trying to find cheap places to make movies, the Philippines were sitting there all the time! It’s a gorgeous country with beautiful vistas, landscapes and people—and it’s tropical.

When I interviewed Cirio Santiago for my book I was amazed by both the scope of his work and his unusual humility. He produced at least one film a year in the Philippines for thirty years in a row. His name is on more than 100 films. Some of the many great titles he produced in the Philippines include The Muthers, Savage!, Ebony, Ivory & Jade and the fantastic TNT Jackson (both his personal favorite and mine).
 
 
One of the things I would have liked to see in your book is interviews with some prominent actors in the blaxploitation genre just like you interviewed prominent directors. Was it a conscious decision on your part, or did you reach out to some actors and had no luck in setting up an interview?

Good question! Actors did not want to talk to me. Many of them were embarrassed by their participation in the genre and didn’t want to revisit it. They had a revised opinion about these pictures and many felt that they were underpaid and misrepresented. It was only after the actors refused to talk to me that I focused on the directors. I said to myself: “If I can get five directors to talk that would be great.” Then I kept going and got ten—before the publication deadline. I was so grateful that they were still around—thirty years had passed—and were happy to take the time to let me sit down and interview them.

In the end, the decision by the actors not to discuss the films worked in my favor. The directors were the ones that had the real stories. They could talk expansively about the creative process; writing, directing, and casting, but they could also talk about things that the actors weren’t involved in like movie studio politics, budgets, marketing and the executive take on the genre.
 
 
Besides authoring this definitive guide, you also give lectures on the genre, which makes me curious about the subject of political correctness. In today's society where political correctness is running rampant, do you ever get any criticism for promoting a genre that is anything but politically correct?

People remain divided on the merits of blaxploitation films and young people are easily offended. At one of my university lectures I actually saw a young white girl burst into tears when I projected a group of posters with the N-word in the title. It was a shock to her system. I think the younger generation just doesn’t get it. They don’t understand how Hollywood got away with releasing films with titles like The Soul of Nigger Charley, The Six Thousand Dollar Nigger or Run, Nigger, Run.

What students learn from my lectures is that the choice to use the N-word in film titles was made by African Americans—not white people. It’s not so different than the use of the word in Hip Hop. It’s taking ownership of the word away from white people and making it our own. Actor Fred Williamson freely admits that his choice to use the N-word in his film titles was calculated: “… that was sure to get them interested in the movie,” he says. “I knew what I was doing: it helped sell tickets.”
 
 
In 2011, you were invited to the Tela Negra Film Festival in Brazil where you both wrote a 10,000-word program and hosted film screenings for two weeks. Could you tell us more about the actual film festival and what kind of reactions you got from the people attending the festival?

Oh, it was fantastic! It was a great learning experience for me because I knew very little about Brazil, the people, the country and the culture. What I discovered was that they have as big a racial divide as America does. Consequently, their films have gone through a similar evolution. They were the last country to abolish slavery so they have a pronounced caste system. Brown and black Brazilians are on the low end of the totem pole while white skinned Brazilians are the politicians, entrepreneurs and entertainment industry stars.

Brazil was also a great place to talk about the films because they saw them at the time of their original release. They got American import films dubbed in Portuguese, so they were as familiar with Coffy, Shaft and Super Fly as I was. And blaxploitation did the same thing for black and brown Brazilians as it did for Americans: it allowed them the vicarious thrill of being successful—according to their own rules.

The broad based appeal of the films with Brazilian audiences was profoundly brought home to me when I spoke at the Odeon Theater in Sao Paulo. It’s one of the country’s most important culture venues and the energy was incredible: there wasn’t an empty seat in the house—and it seat 5,000! Just talking about Brazil makes me want to go back. Even though there were communication challenges (I had an interpreter), and it was difficult for me to negotiate transportation (I was terrified of being late for all the important engagements they had booked me for) the people were absolutely wonderful to me. I keep in contact with many Brazilian fans. It was an honor.
 
 
Let's talk music for a while. I've always felt that the blaxploitation genre took the concept of soundtracks to a whole new level, to me they are as big of a part of the movies as the actors, script, locales, cinematography and other essential aspects are. They almost felt like another character at times. Would you agree?

Absolutely! I’ve always made this case. Blaxploitation films provided a great forum for black music talent. Imagine Super Fly without Curtis Mayfied’s incredible soundtrack album or Shaft without that amazing Grammy and Oscar-winning Isaac Hayes song “Theme From Shaft.” Whether the characters are making love, strutting down the street, or engaged in a street corner brawl, music is essential to the mise en scene of blaxploitation.
 
 
Isaac Hayes, James Brown, Marvin Gaye, Willie Hutch, Curtis Mayfield, Earth Wind & Fire, the amount of talented artists who contributed their music is astounding. If you had to pick just one soundtrack to best represent the genre, which one would it be and which one is your personal favorite?

There’s no question that Super Fly is the most fully realized blaxploitation soundtrack album. “Super Fly,” “Freddie’s Dead” and “Pusherman” were all hits and they are just as engaging and topical as they were when they were released. My favorite soundtrack from the era is probably Marvin Gaye’s Trouble Man. It’s heavy on instrumental tracks but it’s hauntingly beautiful. Also stellar is Roy Ayers’ Coffy, James Brown’s Black Caesar and Barry White’s Together Brothers.
 
 
There's another book on the genre called That's Blaxploitation! Roots of the Baadasssss 'Tude, by Darius James. It takes a different approach than yours do, it's both entertaining and quite odd. Have you read it and if so, what are your opinions of it?

That’s a fun book; more one person’s take on the genre than an overview. I met Darius at a Blaxploitation symposium at The Schomburg Center for African American Research here in NYC. We both gave lectures and, afterwards, we chatted: he’s quite a character!

Our books are different: his is a personal take, mine is a distanced overview. Don’t get me wrong, Blaxploitation Cinema contains many barbs and cutting observations, but the story of blaxploitation cinema is not my story: I'm just the messenger. My desire is to present context and information. I encourage the reader to see the films and draw their own conclusions.
 
 
In your book, you mention that several directors didn't want to be interviewed because they took offense to the term blaxploitation being used when discussing their work. Did they at least let you explain why you felt that this was an important book about an important time in the history of filmmaking? Or did they dismiss you right away?

Many people, inside and outside of the film industry, find the term “blaxploitation” derogatory. Fred Williamson has been one of the most vocal opponents to the labeling and categorization. He says if Death Wish isn’t called “whitesploitation” why should Black Caesar be called blaxploitation. He’s got a good case but it’s a case I won’t be making.

The director’s that didn’t want to speak to me didn’t want their films labeled “blaxploitation”—even if they were. They were revisionists. I understand where they’re coming from but I don’t agree with the basic premise that the term “blaxploitation” is disrespectful or exploitative. We’ll agree to disagree!
 
 
Have you met any Blaxploitation actors prior to or after the publishing of your book? Any interesting stories to tell if you have?

I was a guest commentator on five episodes of a TV series called Unsung Hollywood here in America. Unsung has been running for ten years on the African American network TV One. Unsung spends an hour looking at African American achievement in the entertainment industry. I met many of the major players in front of and behind the scenes of blaxploitation when I was filming episodes.

I remember when I did the Richard Roundtree episode two of his relatives were waiting in the green room for their turn to go before the cameras. They were great older people with their own unique stories and they were so proud of Roundtree and his accomplishments. They made a bigger impression on me than Richard himself!
 
 
Over the years since its release, have you gotten any encouraging words from people (actors, producers, directors or such) who worked in the genre and have read your book?

Only from the directors. They loved their interviews and they love the book and the fact that I presented them as more than working professions: to me they are an important part of American film history. Jammaa Fanaka (Penitentiary) was great. So was Robert A. Endelson (Fight For Your Life) and Larry Cohen (Black Caesar). Arthur Marks (Detroit 9000) told me that his grandchildren can’t believe that he’s worthy of being in a serious book about cinema!
 
 
Undoubtedly, Pam Grier best represents the female side of the genre, but who of the many prominent male stars do you feel would be best fit, when taking body of work into account, to represent the male counterpart in blaxploitation?

Fred Williamson and Jim Brown are the equivalent of Pam and both were just as big as Pam at the Box Office. Brown’s Slaughter was the No. 1 film in America and it was followed by a sequel: Slaughter’s Big Rip Off. He was an athlete who photographed well and had a cool laid back air about him. Fred Williamson is a movie star on a par with Tom Cruise. He’s an engaging commodity; a multi-talented actor/producer/writer who played in Westerns, comedies, dramas and even an engaging African American take on the James Bond franchise—called That Man Bolt. Both of these men are superior talents and genuine African American movie stars. What they did meant a lot to black audiences at the time: and it still does.
 
 
In your opinion, what is the best blaxploitation movie ever made from strictly a quality point of view and which one is your personal favorite based on your own preferences?

Super Fly is the best. Acting, writing, music, atmosphere, intent. The main character wants to get out of the drug trade. My personal favorite is Coffy. It’s an anti hero vigilante justice tale that hit No. 1 Variety’s Top Grossing Box Office List (just as popular with white audiences as with African Americans) and made Pam Grier a star. It’s bombastic, outrageous, stunning to behold and clever. A downbeat film (no happy ending here) with a message. Simple and profound.
 
 
Shaft is making the news again as you may be aware of, with another reboot in the works. Normally, I dislike remakes and reboots while at the same time acknowledging there have been some great ones, too. With Shaft, however, I welcome a new one. I very much liked John Singleton's effort with Samuel L. Jackson back in 2000 and hoped that was the start of a new franchise. I feel that Shaft is one of those immortal characters like James Bond where every other generation or so, a new actor can take over the role. What are your thoughts regarding a new Shaft movie and who do you think would be good in the leading role? My dream casting would be Idris Elba.

Idris Elba would be perfect for the part (even if he is British!) He’s fantastic: a good actor with charm and charisma and he’s already displayed his athletic prowess on film.. Although I'm attached to the originals, I stand behind re-making films from the genre. If Hollywood wants to pay for a brand new updated version, that’s great! Much has changed and that can all be worked into a retelling. I’ll keep my fingers crossed.
 
 
Would you be so kind as to recommend five movies as a good starting point to those of my readers that may not be very familiar with blaxploitation? Also, could you list five movies of lesser quality that newcomers should avoid until they've gotten more used to the genre and its unconventionalism?

Best: Coffy, Super Fly, Shaft’s Big Score!, Top of the Heap, Black Caesar, in that order.

Worst; (but still fun as camp): The Guy From Harlem, Miss Melody Jones, Speeding Up Time, Mean Mother, The Bus is Coming, in that order.
 
 
Finally, besides Blaxploitation Cinema, you've also written books about Donna Summer, Cher and the anecdotal Famous People Eat Too! What are your plans for the future? Are you working on a new book, or have ideas for future ones?

I'm a regular contributor to several cinema websites and I continue to be a consultant on the genre: both on the lecture circuit and behind the scenes. Currently I'm very excited about two screenplays that I’ve written. I have an agent in Los Angeles and he’s shopping them. It really is my best writing: incorporating my love and knowledge of cinema, my personal experiences, and my passions and inclinations. It’s my hope to see you soon Anders: at a theater near you!
 
Stort tack till Josiah Howard för intervjun! Ni kan besöka hans hemsida här och boken Blaxploitation Cinema: The Essential Reference Guide kan ni köpa på BokusAdlibrisAmazon och Fab Press.
Arthur Marks - Barry White - Black Caesar - Blaxploitation - Blaxploitation Cinema: The Essential Reference Guide - Cher - Coffy - Curtis Mayfield - Death Wish - Detroit 9000 - Donna Summer - Ebony, Ivory & Jade - Famous People Eat Too! - Fight for Your Life - Fred Williamson - Freddie's Dead - Greased Lightening - Hit Man - Idris Elba - Isaac Hayes - Jamaa Fanaka - James Bond - James Brown - Jim Brown - John Singleton - Josiah Howard - Larry Cohen - Mahogany - Mean Mother - Miss Melody Jones - Pam Grier - Penitentiary - Pusherman - Richard Roundtree - Robert A. Endelson - Run, Nigger, Run - Samuel L. Jackson - Savage! - Shaft - Shaft's Big Score! - Slaughter - Slaughter's Big Rip Off - Speeding Up Time - Super Fly - TNT Jackson - That Man Bolt - The Big Doll House - The Bus is Coming - The Guy From Harlem - The Muthers - The Six Thousand Dollar Nigger - The Soul of Nigger Charley - Theme from Shaft - Together Brothers - Tom Cruise - Top of the Heap - Trouble Man - Unsung Hollywood - Women in Cages